Role of Computer in Research

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Role of Computer in Research

Role of Computer in Research

What is Research?

Research is a systematic and methodical process of inquiry that is aimed at generating new knowledge or solving problems. It is typically conducted within a specific field of study, such as medicine, engineering, or social sciences. Research is guided by a set of research questions or hypotheses, and involves gathering, analyzing, and interpreting data. The findings of research are communicated to others through publication, presentations, and other forms of dissemination.

Research is an ongoing process, and new discoveries can lead to further questions and investigations.

"Research is the manipulation of things concepts or symbols for the purpose of generalizing to extend, correct or verify knowledge whether that knowledge aids in the practice of an art"?

Research is an intellectual pursuit that aims to advance our ability to comprehend, forecast, or influence global events by establishing new facts and understanding the causes of certain occurrences. The knowledge gleaned by research is of the greatest caliber. Understanding fundamental principles is just as important as knowing facts; it helps explain the why and how of events and facts. In addition, research includes two more features. First, its findings are verifiable, meaning that the conclusions drawn by one individual can be confirmed by another. This is only achievable when data is collected objectively and when the methods for analysis and result interpretation are well defined and repeatable. Second, research follows what is called "the scientific method or procedure, which an akin to what Dewey calls the thinking process"

Objective of Research:

There are several objectives that are typically pursued in research. The most common ones include: 

  • To gain familiarity with a phenomenon or to achieve new insights.
  • To expand knowledge and understanding of a particular topic or problem.
  • To portray accurately the characteristics of a particular individuals, or group
  • To improve or develop a theory or model.
  • To determine the frequency with which something occurs or associate with someone else.
  • To test the validity of an existing theory or model
  • To solve a specific problem or answer a specific question.
  • To generate new ideas and insight.
  • To develop new methods or techniques.
  • To create new products or technologies.
  • To test a hypothesis of a causal relationship between variable.

It’s important to note that not all research has to have a specific objective or outcome in mind. Sometimes, the goal is simply to explore a topic or problem.

What is a Computer?

A computer is a device that can be programmed to carry out sequence of logical and mathematical operations. It typically consists of hardware (the physical components of the computer) and software (the programs that runs the computer). The software enables the computer to perform a wide range of tasks, from processing data to performing complex calculations.

Modern computers are electronic devices that use a combination of logic gates and memory units to perform computations. They can be as small as handheld device or as large as a supercomputer. 

Computer System:

 A computer system typically consist of the four main components,   (1) input device (2) the processing device (3) memory device and (4) output device.

  • Input device -The input device allows the user to enter data as well as instructions to the main part of the Computer such as, a keyboard or mouse, the are used to enter data into the computer.
  • Central Processing device - The central processing unit (UP), executes the instructions that tell the computer what to do.
  • Memory device: The memory unit provides space for storing data as well as instructions. Before their processing, the input data are also storing temporizing in the memory unit. During the processing, the intermediate results as well as the final results, before sending them to the output unit, are also stored in the memory unit. The memory stores the data and instructions that the processing unit need to execute.
  • Output device: After processing the input data by the CPU, the results obtained are sent to the output unit where the data are either stored in the secondary storage devices or printed on a paper. The results may also be displayed on the console (Video Display Unit).

Computer in Research 

Computers are actively used in every area of research. Some examples of Computers in research are as:

Access to Secondary Data

 These days, secondary data can be accessed utilizing devices like computers, whether they are documents, journals, newspapers, or articles. You can get the Britannica Encyclopedia on a CD-Rom. The majority of large libraries may be accessed online. Additionally, the researcher can examine databases of newspapers and other media online for secondary data. The majority of search engines, including government statistics, census data, market research reports, Google, Yahoo, and AltaVista, offer online reference materials that go beyond the printed materials found in conventional libraries. Search engines are programs that assist a user in locating the desired content among the large amount of data on the internet. Several resources for secondary data can be found at:

Data Collection Using Questionnaire Made Easy

It has been observed that occasionally the sample is dispersed widely, perhaps even across continents. Usually, it takes a few days for the questionnaire to be delivered, completed, and returned. However, gathering data is simple, quick, and affordable with the use of e-questionnaires. An electronic questionnaire can be viewed at any time and safely stored in the respondent's mailbox or in their inbox, eliminating the risk of losing or misplacing a printed copy.

Data Collection by Interview 

The decision to record an interview is one of the most important ones that must be made during the process. The drawback of using the short-hand method is that you break the respondent's train of thought by not making eye contact. These days, high capacity memory cards are employed in audio-visual systems. This releases the proper queries from the study team's thinking. Additionally, the interviewer is prompted to ask questions using CATI (Computer Assisted Telephonic Interview), which automatically selects a number at random. A computer-assisted telephone survey advances the interview process by substituting the interviewer with a computer. Thus, conducting interviews is faster and more effective when computers are used. Focus group interviews can be conducted online with the use of computers and the internet. The researcher benefits from this in two ways: first, it allows them to gather flying respondents at a significantly lower cost.

Accurate Observations 

It has been observed that the majority of observers experience chronic exhaustion and loss of focus. As a result, the observer's data may not be accurate or legitimate. Computers and other modern technologies can be used to solve this issue. Nowadays, the majority of observation studies make use of closed-circuit television cameras, or CCTV, which enable thorough event observation and later analysis of the recorded data.

Computers for Data Analysis 

The laborious processes of editing, coding, and tabulation expose the research effort to non-sampling errors. Nonetheless, there are now many statistical packages on the market that can handle complex statistical analysis in addition to the initial work of editing, coding, and tabulation. A few examples of widely accessible software are mini-tab, SAS (statistical analysis system), and SPSS (statistical for the social sciences). These statistical software packages have a broad purpose. Typically, a variety of keyboards or scanning devices are utilized to enter the data that has been acquired. Consequently, spreadsheets, full screen editors, and other programs can be used to edit a whole data file. Generically, n-way tables for many programs can be constructed using nearly any statistical tool.

Data Mining 

Data mining is one of the most common applications of computers when it comes to accessing and analyzing secondary data. Data mining is the process of extracting patterns and insights from large data sets. It is often used to find hidden patterns and correlation that can help business and organizations make better decisions. Data mining techniques include machine learning, text mining, and statistical analysis. Software tools such as Python, R, and SQL can be used to perform data mining.

Data Storage 

 Data storage is another important aspect of computer. There are variety of data storage options, including hard drives, solid-state drives, and cloud storage. Hard drives are most common type of storage, and consist of spinning disks that store data magnetically. Solid-state drives, on the other hand, stores data electronically and are faster than hard drives. Cloud storage allows data to be stored remotely on server, and can be accessed from any device with an internet connection. 

Generate Results   

One of the use of computer is to generate reports that represent the results of data analysis. Reports can be used to communicate findings to other, and can be presented in a variety of formats, such as tables, charts, and graphs. There are many different software’s tools that can be used to create reports, including Microsoft Excel, Tableau, and R. these tools allows users to customize the look and feel of their reports, and to add text and annotations to help explain the results.


The conclusion of a report is one of the most important sections, as it summarizes the key findings and provides recommendations for further action. It should be clear and concise, and should avoid using technical jargon or overly complex language. It should also emphasize that important of the findings and highlight any limitations or uncertainties. In addition, it should be written in such a way that it is easily understood by the target audience.

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